- CASE FILES
Testimony of witness Akselrod st. Master of the Ural Hydromash Factory
April 24, 1959 prosecutor-criminalist of the Sverdlovsk region Ivanov
Interrogated as a witness, subject to Art. 162-168 Code of Criminal Procedure of the RSFSR
Surname, name and patronymic Akselrod Moses Abramovich
2. Year of birth 1932 3. Place of birth of Velikie Luki
4. Nationality of a Jew
5. Party membership b / n.
6. Education In 1956 he graduated from the Ural Polytechnic Institute
7.Lesson: a) at the present time: Art. master of the Ural Hydromash plant.
b) at the time to which the testimony refers: ibid.
8) Previous conviction: we do not judge.
9) Permanent residence: r.p. Sysert, st. Rosa Luxemburg, 6, apt. 2
10) Passport: -
11) What is the relationship with the accused: -
On the responsibility for the first part of Art. 92 of the Criminal Code for refusing to testify and under Art. 95 Criminal Code of the RSFSR for deliberately giving false testimony warned
Sheet 316 - Turnover
In February-March 1958, I was the head of a third-category tourist hike in the Subpolar Urals (the district of Narodnaya). Among the participants of the campaign was Igor Dyatlov. Prior to this campaign, together with us, we were participants in a campaign of the third category of difficulty in the Sayan Mountains in the summer of 1956. My first acquaintance with Dyatlov refers to 1954, by the time of admission his institute. At that time I was the chairman of the bureau of the tourist section of the institute. From the point of view of tourist experience, and just human qualities, I knew Djatlov badly at that time, so our first acquaintance dates back to 1956 (meaning close acquaintance)
Our Sayan group consisted mainly of graduates of the Institute and engineers, perhaps that's why the sophomore of the Woodpeckers kept somewhat closed, not meeting with anyone particularly close. Dyatlov's great contribution to the organization of the march was two transceiver-ultrashort wave devices designed for communication between rafts. I was the head of the group, my responsibilities were, among other things, the distribution of cargo between the group members, and from this side I had a serious claim to Dyatlov after the campaign. I trusted him to weigh his own radio and he cheated me 3 kilograms. This turned out to be the day of the third. I emphasize that this is my only claim to him and that it was in 1956. After the Sayan
campaign I went to work in Siberia, from there returned only in April 1957 and my next meeting with Dyatlov took place in the winter of 1958 in a winter campaign. I must say that Dyatlov struck me with his dissimilarity with Dyatlov, whom I knew in 1956. He was an open, self-sacrificing, kind comrade, serious about serious matters, able to contribute, where necessary, a dose of humor, etc.
In the group, he was highly respected for the above qualities, for physical endurance, for tourist experience, for being ready at any time to perform any business. Naturally, as a boss, I appreciated in him the most recent quality. Long days and nights, evenings spent at the fire led to the fact that we became friends with Dyatlov. My friend was a man who, in addition to serious attitude to tourism (in which we met with him), took life very seriously in all its manifestations (books, studies, science - especially art)
After the Dyatlov and other members of the group (Bartholomew, Khan, Chubarev, Khalizov) went on a campaign of difficulty category III, they were given the right to lead similar campaigns. And already with our return to Sverdlovsk, the question arose where to go to these tourists next winter. This question was not finally solved and I learned about the final route of Dyatlov only from himself
approximately in November. In November or December, I do not remember exactly, I was a witness of Diatlov's visit to the meeting of the city section with the draft of the campaign. The project commission was sent to a consultation with Maslennikov. After the end of the section, Dyatlov and Kolmogorov (she was also in this section) saw me off to the building of the regional party school. We talked about a lot, in particular about the campaign, I recommended Dyatlov to support the iron discipline in the campaign in order to get out as soon as possible. It is better to have time in reserve than to overtake it. Both of them, Dyatlov and Kolmogorov, quite seriously persuaded me to take part in their campaign. Judging by their mood, both did not doubt that the campaign would go well, and they expected a lot for themselves. Perhaps, it was not in December, but in January, because I now remember that this was our last meeting. I promised Dyatlov that I would visit him somewhere on the 20th of February and find out everything about their campaign. Concluding this section, I want to note that the personal qualities of Dyatlov should be attributed to his direct expression of many feelings, like delight, satisfaction, joy.
On February 22, on Sunday, using my stay in Sverdlovsk (the word "hike" is crossed out), I went to the dormitory No. 10 of the UPI in the room to Dyatlov. To my question whether Dyatlov, a neighbor of his Chigvintsev, had come, answered that he did not, and that the search for the group had begun. There I first heard about the tragedy, I heard that the search had begun. On the 23rd day I worked full day at the factory, and 24 at twelve o'clock in the morning I started to call Sver -
dlovsk in order to find out whether there is anything new about the Djatlov group. Ruble called. She told me that she flew to Ivdel Maslennikov. It became clear to me that the business was taking a very serious turn. About a quarter to twelve I called the headquarters of searches in the UPI, Blinov, who knew me, approached the phone, she told me that in the morning Ivdel was flying an airplane and that, perhaps, it would be possible to fly with him. At half past two in the night I was at the institute, and in the morning I insisted before Slobodin about my departure to Ivdel, motivating my demand for experience (I'm the only one in Sverdlovsk who has four winter hikes of the highest difficulty category) and the fact that Djatlov went to the winter "troika" with me and therefore to it to some extent should be inherent in my "creative handwriting", if I may say so a choice of a way on micro-sites, a choice of lodging, ways of ascent, etc. Not wanting to take responsibility for my flight to the mountains Slobodin refused me. I was helped by the head of the training and sports department of the sports club UPI - Milman PS, who phoned with Repyev PA, introduced me and arranged for me a business trip. F.K. and S. for search and rescue operations. Together with students. - by radio operator operators, mountaineering tourists Sogrin and Tipikin, I flew to Ivdel on the evening of February 25, where I went almost immediately to a meeting of the search headquarters. I questioned the stay of the Slobtsov group on the city of Oorten and suggested that we throw our small, but maneuver -
The group under the city of Otorten is the most northern point of the route of the Djatlov group. After a long discussion, the proposal was accepted. During the meeting of the staff, the feeble competence of its members, with the exception of Maslennikov, in tourism in general and in the organization of this type of search in particular. The members of the staff can not be blamed for this, but in such circumstances it was necessary to assign the search questions in my mind to tourists, leaving the general leadership and organization behind the staff. On February 26, despite bad weather, my group (I was appointed as a leader) in Akselrod, Sogrin, Tipikin, Yaburov, Chigvintsev was at 4 o'clock in the afternoon landed from a helicopter kilometers to the east of the height of Oorten. As time went by the evening, I decided not to carry out searches on this day, but to stop for the night, which we did below the forest boundary in the valley of the Sulpa River. On the morning of 27 February at 8 o'clock. For 10 minutes, the search group consisting of Akselrod, Sogrin and Tipikin, we went in search of, leaving in the camp for communication with the plane (this was agreed in advance) Chigvintsev and Yaburov with the radio station RBS We returned to the camp only at seven o'clock in the evening. For 10 hours of searches with a fifteen-minute break for lunch, we went through the search for about forty, forty-five kilometers, going around the forest border the entire valley of the western tributary of the Sulpa River, having inspected all passes between
the peaks of the mountains of Oorten, 1024, 1039; 1041, making the traverse of the peak of Oorten from south-west to north-east and separately climbing to Oorten with a by-pass of the southern corner of Otterten. From the top of the mountain was a note, dated 1956, left by tourists from the Moscow State University. About 1 o'clock in the afternoon the airplane flying over us dropped the pendant with the order to carefully continue further searches with the message that all the things and skis of the Djatlov group were found kilometers 12-13 to the south of us on the slope of 1079. It became clear to me that the Djatlov group He died and offered to uncover his head. It was clear that without the skis the group could not go anywhere. With the departure from Ivdel, we had an agreement that on February 28, in 4 days, a helicopter would arrive behind us. About five o'clock in the evening on February 28 the group was sent to Ivdel. We flew together with the Provincial Prosecutor General Tempalov. He informed me that the uncovered bodies of four people were found: Dyatlova, Kolmogorova, Krivonischenko and Zolotarev (subsequently identified as Doroshenko). In Ivdel, to Artyukov's question, what are our further plans, I personally and the entire group fully provided my time at the disposal of the search headquarters and the next day, together with the regional prosecutor-criminalist Ivanov LN. Sogrin, Tipikin and I were landed by a helicopter in the search area. We immediately had to change our boots instead of boots and take part in the loading of the tent into a helicopter and -
the Djatlov group. Three bodies - Kolmogorova, Dyatlova and Doroshenko, lay already brought from the valley near the stone-remains on the pass. The group immediately took part in the search. It was clear to me that none of the dead had left the valley, the time had passed a lot, the bodies, of course, lay under the snow, and they need to be searched only here. From that day until the day of departure (March 9), I took part in the searches every day with a probe in my hands. At first he participated as the head of his, of five people, group, and then, with the departure of some of the tourists to Ivdel, as the head of the entire civilian part of the search group. The tactics of searching were not established from the very beginning. Initially, the search groups went on a wide search, seldom and superficially piercing the snow cover with ski poles from tent to cedar (1500 m) and then the tactic changed. The search engines, standing close to each other, elbow to elbow, walked along or across the slopes of the emergency valley, deeply piercing the snow with metal probes. This method yielded results: on March 5, one of the participants of the deceased group, Rustem Slobodin, was found under snow, the thickness of the smallest in 350 mm. He lay with his belly down, arms outstretched, on one of which - the right one, something was seated about the joint of the thumb. The same hand had a watch. On the head a hat, on the basis of which I believe that at the time of death, there was not a particularly strong wind, tk. he would inevitably blow off the cap from his head if not alive, then dead, Slobodin. One leg, right (I can be mistaken) was in felt boots, left without it, pulled up under the right leg. The face is very
Quiet, no evidence of violence with this external examination was not visible. Under the knees, chest, i.e. parts of the body to which the gravity of the person lying was distributed, there was a half-ice-half-snow layer about 70-80 mm thick, which allowed me to conclude that Slobodin did not die instantly, and
What, on the basis of my personal impressions, is the picture of the death of the group drawn to me?
On February 1, the group got up late. It is late, because the day before, judging by the diary, the group is very tired, and because in the morning, or already after the diary was written, late in the evening it was decided to do the labor camp in order to free up the shoulders worn out by the previous campaign , increase the speed of movement. In the morning the group got up at 11 and proceeded to install the storage. While they were doing the storage, while they were sorting out what to take with them and what to leave (the day before it was not done, because the storage unit was in question), breakfast was ready.
It was about an hour in 2. And I think that the band got out not earlier than half past year, setting one of 2 tasks: 1) To pass from the forest to the forest, from the valley of Auspii to the valley of Lozva or: 2) Considering the fact that for several days the group has been walking along extremely deep snow, the movement along which is extremely tedious. Considering that the group had had a good rest on this half-day, it was late ate, to move as far as possible along the forest boundary, without going into the forest (deep snow, towards Ottoten so that the next evening would certainly be near Ottenen himself). The group with lightweight backpacks goes on the route, but relatively later time - about 5 hours, poor visibility, more precisely, the absence of it makes the group stop for the night outside the forest. This does not exclude any of the options offered here. Was there a decision on a night's lodging in a naked place (I deliberately avoided the word slope, because I believe that the slope, as such, did not play any role in their deaths) justified? In my opinion, yes. Why?
Last year, in the Subpolar Urals, we had four such lodging. All of them were in such conditions, when the security considerations of the group dictated the need to stop there where there is a place, while there is still a bright time to put the tent. It was in severe (-25 - 30 ° C) frosts and there was no reason to admit this decision was not tactically incorrect. So Djatlov had precedents, and they stopped at night not smilovushhestvav, not blindly obeying the forces of nature. It should be noted that the practice of high-altitude climbing - it's only spending the night on
snow, only in severe frosts and, often, in a blizzard and snowstorm. It is not excluded that while the group was putting up a tent 2-3 people went to the reconnaissance. The tent is set. The tent is set taking into account the bad weather. Strongly stretched
rub, removed one felt boots, or, on the contrary, put on the boots that had started to freeze. The awakening was terrible. My firm belief is that nothing and no one inside could not instill panic terror into children. From the inside, in the sense in the tent itself. Hence, they were forced to escape the manifestation of some kind of external forces. If the tent is asleep, closed, then it is either very bright light, or very strong ("bright" - crossed out, note), or both. It may be that the signal to escape was given by one of the comrades who had come out to urinate, from the surprise dropped a flashlight. Just a few clasps are open at the entrance. The triangular end of the tent is stretched well, and that's why it's not easy for one person to climb. Crush, crush. Maybe at this time, not knowing what to grab Slobodin is wearing a felt boots (his own?). Whoever falls into the hands of a saving knife. Not the first time, since the third tent is cut and begins a panic flight down the wind, to where it is easiest to run. The fact that there is a forest, guess only then. I stayed with a group of tourists for a long time on the site of a tent with a group of tourists (Sogrin, Korolev, Baskin, Shuleshko) and we came to the unanimous conclusion that if they had only one chance to return, they would have returned and returned with any wind. The group is running. But these are not animals, but young, energetic, Soviet people. They run in one group. Somewhere on the rocks ridge smashes Slobodin's head and soon falls. But after all, the tent is not visible, legs
It burns cold snow, and maybe Slobodin closes a group of fugitives, and he remains lying on the snow. And somewhere else before it broke away and lost sight of the last Zina Kolmogorova. Long probudiv, and she lies down on the snow. The rest run to the forest, to deep snow and begin with inhuman efforts to fight for life. At the price of a long time frostbitten hands and feet, a fire is lit and Dyatlov, the leader of the group, a faithful comrade, goes in search of the stragglers and freezes there. And maybe after him goes looking for Dyatlov and Slobodin Kolmogorov. It has not yet reached her that it's about life and death that the group can not be broken up, but she was always in the team (at first the trade school, then the school, the institute, the tourist section) and for her the tourist slogan "Die yourself, and comrade bail out "is not an empty phrase. She goes into the snowstorm, up and falls down exhausted in the snow and freezes. There are several people at the fire. They decided to collect more cedarwood behind the cedar, to dig into it and wait out the bad weather, especially since thin firewood is not close, they can not break down thick ones, but their hands and feet are already frost-bitten. They understand that they will not be able to return to the tent. Two, Krivonischenko and Doroshenko, falling asleep, die, and the rest in the last attempt to save their lives rush either to the storage room or to the tent. On this way, they are overtaken by death.
The search for the group begins. A tent was found. While it was being dug in, sacks and blankets could fall out of the sack and blankets, and not eaten by someone before a piece of fat. It is unlikely that anyone will come to go -
Lovu, early getting up for the night, having plenty of time left without finishing the dressing without having finished letting the newspaper sit down for dinner.
Separately, you should express your opinion on the organization and techniques of searches. The organization of searches from the moment I came to Ivdel Maslennikov (throwing up assaults on the route at several points) does not raise any objections. There is also no doubt that the practice of methodically probing the most probable locations ("safety" - twice crossed out, for example) of frozen tourists, established by the end of my stay at the site of searches, is not in doubt either. I believe that this method in the conditions of a snowy winter and the existing gap in time between the death of the group and the beginning of searches was the most rational. Naturally, if the search began within 2 days after the death of tourists, then the best would be a free search. Now it is only possible to say that for a faster detection of the location of bodies in an emergency valley, it was necessary at first to search for more people at a time.
The question arises whether the existing method of preparing tourist groups for campaigns of any potential danger does not exist. Unfortunately yes.
And that's why:
1. Unfortunately, neither in the system of the Rospromsovet nor in the light industry has the production of appropriate tourist equipment for winter trips of great difficulty been established, such as: 1. Glued broad skis with a metal edging. 2. Warmed storm suits. 3. Special shoes. 4. Special tents, < unintelligible > and so on
2. In each separate region of the Union tourism ("given away" - twice crossed out, comment ed.) Was neglected. The current situation is such that the route along the Urals can be approved in Moldova, and the Moldovan route in Sverdlovsk. In my opinion, it would be necessary to create a route commission in each district, which would have the right to approve hikes in this area. This, by the way, will lead to the fact that the groups will start preparing for the campaigns in advance.
3. For every large tourist area, following the pattern of mountaineering, it is necessary to create rescue teams with an inviolable supply of food, equipment, with a permanent composition of people.
4. It should be given the task to design light walkie-talkies, for which it would be possible to keep communication with planes sent by the chief of the rescue team of the area over the places of group routes.
M. Akselrod (signature)
24 / IV / 59 g.